Monday, May 25, 2020

Essay on Personal Narrative- Soccer State Championship

Personal Narrative- Soccer State Championship On February 28, 2005, I experienced one of the most exciting events that anyone could ever experience – winning a State Championship. The day my soccer team made history is a day I’ll never forget. However it is not just that day we won the title, but the whole experience of the preceding season that got us there. From start to finish, my team’s 2004-2005 season taught me that the platitude is true. You can do anything you set your mind to. From before day one, all our minds were set. This was the year to win a State Championship. I can’t exactly explain it, but right from the start I knew we were going to do it. I was never so sure about anything in my life and I never doubted it once.†¦show more content†¦As Christmas break approached, the team faced what was going to be our biggest challenge of all. Due to his new job, our coach now took the title of â€Å"assistant† and we were given a new head coach. The coaches were, and are, good friends, but have totally different coaching styles. The first was laid back and carefree with a great sense of humor, which made him well liked by everyone he coached. The new coach had a reputation for being arrogant, strict, and having a no-tolerance policy when it comes to joking around. Because of this perspective some girls held of our new coach, many were upset with the change. After we attended a tournament over the break, however, the girls realized that t hey had been wrong about the coach and he was just what we needed to help us achieve our goal. Unfortunately we still had tension among players. It even got as far as one player taking the ball from another on the field in the middle of the game. As the season progressed, this problem practically solved itself as we bonded at practices, pre-game get-togethers, and voluntarily spending time together on weekends. We grew from barely tolerating each other to being such a tight-knit group that even schoolmates noticed. With the Christmas tournament aside, we entered the post-season without a loss. We had a plan for each playoff game from districts to regional. We never deviated from the plan, keeping our eye on the target –Show MoreRelatedCountry Notebook Essay12249 Words   |  49 Pagescard, South Korean executives will take a moment to read the card. They would never consider writing on the card, as this is a sign of disrespect. (Kieff.com) The South Korean business people believe that the first meeting should be personal. There should be personal conversation before business begins. In a business setting, people address each other by titles alone or by title and family name. Given names are not used without permission (business-in-asia.com). Visitors should never enter a conferenceRead More65 Successful Harvard Business School Application Essays 2nd Edition 147256 Words   |  190 Pagesreserved. Printed in the United States of America. For-information, address St. Martins Press, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10010. www.stmartins.com Library of Congress Cataloging...in..Publication Data 65 successful Harvard Business -School application essays : with analysis by the staff of The Harbus, the Harvard Business School newspaper / Lauren Sullivan and the staff of The Harbus.-2nd ed. p.em. ISBN 978...0..312...55007...3 1. Business schools-United States-Admission. 2. Exposition (Rhetoric)Read MoreGp Essay Mainpoints24643 Words   |  99 Pages†¢ Connections to a wider spectrum of professionals ( greater insight into issue at hand †¢ E.g. 2008 U.S. Presidential Elections (bloggers provide personal opinions about who was likely to win but New York Times invited experts to do a state-by-state analysis presenting results in a full-page spread, culminating in a detailed map showing states Democrats were likely to win) †¢ Anonymity: given free rein to publish any thought that comes to mind †¢ E.g. For every worthwhile video presentRead MoreExploring Corporate Strategy - Case164366 Words   |  658 Pagesprocesses are also undergoing international harmonisation. In Europe the European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) was established to enable more rapid regulatory approvals through the ‘centralised’ procedure, which grants approval in all member states simultaneously. This offers great beneï ¬ ts in terms of reduced costs and accelerated time to market, but also increased risk as more is at stake on one decision. There is also a move towards global regulatory harmonisation through the InternationalRead MoreMarketing Management 14th Edition Test Bank Kotler Test Bank173911 Words   |  696 PagesModerate 7) Car rental firms, hair dressers, and management consultants provide ________. A) goods B) experiences C) events D) services E) information Answer: D Page Ref: 5 Objective: 2 AACSB: Analytic skills Difficulty: Easy 8) The Soccer World Cup is promoted aggressively to both companies and fans. This is an example of marketing a(n) ________. A) idea B) place C) luxury item D) event E) service Answer: D Page Ref: 5 Objective: 2 Difficulty: Moderate 9) The MalaysiaRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pages Organizational Behavior This page intentionally left blank Organizational Behavior EDITION 15 Stephen P. Robbins —San Diego State University Timothy A. Judge —University of Notre Dame i3iEi35Bj! Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Editorial Director: Sally Yagan Director of Editorial Services:Read MoreProject Mgmt296381 Words   |  1186 PagesStudies Approach with Spreadsheets, Fourth Edition Stevenson and Ozgur, Introduction to Management Science with Spreadsheets, First Edition Project Management The Managerial Process Fifth Edition Erik W. Larson Oregon State University Clifford F. Gray Oregon State University PROJECT MANAGEMENT: THE MANAGERIAL PROCESS Published by McGraw-Hill/Irwin, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY, 10020. Copyright  © 2011 by The McGraw-HillRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 Pagesupdated: April 26, 2016 Logical Reasoning Bradley H. Dowden Philosophy Department California State University Sacramento Sacramento, CA 95819 USA ii iii Preface Copyright  © 2011-14 by Bradley H. Dowden This book Logical Reasoning by Bradley H. Dowden is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. That is, you are free to share, copy, distribute, store, and transmit all or any part of the work under the following conditions:

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Alzheimers Disease Essay - 2168 Words

Alzheimer’s disease or AD is an incurable disorder of the brain that results in loss of normal brain structure and function. In an AD brain, normal brain tissue is slowly replaced by structures called plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The plaques represent a naturally occurring sticky protein called beta amyloid and in an Alzheimer’s brain, sufferer’s tend to accumulate too much of this protein. Neurofibrillary tangles represent collapsed tau proteins which, in a normal brain along with microtubules, form a skeleton that maintains the shape of the nerve cells. In Alzheimer’s disease, the tau proteins break loose from their normal location and form tangles. Without the support of these molecules, nerve cells collapse and die. As normal†¦show more content†¦There are few people who do not worry about getting AD as they get older. Indeed, the incidence of AD increases with each successive year of life after age 60. Currently, scientists estimat e that â€Å"4.5 million people have AD in America alone and 22 million worldwide† (Willett 63). The disease affects about â€Å"five percent of people ages 65 to 74 and nearly half the population of people 85 and older† (â€Å"Alzheimer† 1). Disturbingly, the disease is becoming even more common. Statistics now show that the number of people with the disease doubles every five years among older people. Using this as a rule, Dr. Robert Katzman of the University of California â€Å"estimates the total could be 45 million worldwide by 2050† (qted in Willett 13). With these future projections of the incidence of AD, the financial cost of supporting the afflicted will be exorbitant as well. Lifetime societal costs for an individual afflicted with Alzheimer’s disease are â€Å"$174,000 in the United States† (Willett 13). The cost to businesses that â€Å"lose productivity of their employees who must care for their relatives afflicted with AD is 26 billion†(Willett 13). Economists also state, â€Å"the total cost to the United States per year for the care of AD patients is estimated to be 100 billion† (Willett 13). With these kind of costs financially, it is mandatory that public health programs be instated to decrease theShow MoreRelatedAlzheimers Disease945 Words   |  4 PagesAlzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease is a progressive neurological disease; it often attacks the brain tissues causing memory loss of one’s identity and regular behaviors. Statistics indicates that the rate of predicted people to get Alzheimer’s will increase briskly as time goes on. There are currently no cures for such disastrous disease, but there are currently approved treatments available that can help people within the early stages of Alzheimer’s. Once the disease is too far alongRead MoreAlzheimers Disease3170 Words   |  13 PagesThe Role of Caregiving to Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease Megan Zann April 27, 2012 Health Psychology Dr. Ackerman Introduction It is normal to periodically forget your keys or a homework assignment, because you generally remember these things later. However, individuals who suffer from Alzheimer’s disease may forget things more often, but they do not remember them again. The incidence of Alzheimer’s disease has dramatically increased because people are living longer. This is a result ofRead MoreEssay on Alzheimers Disease1503 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"Alzheimer’s disease is a form of dementia that gets worse over time. It leads to nerve cell death, and tissue loss throughout the brain. Over time, the brain shrinks dramatically, affecting nearly all its functions. It gradually destroys a persons memory and ability to learn and carry out daily activities such as talking, eating, and going to the bathroom† (What Is Alzheimer’s). Early symptoms include personality changes, memory impairment, problems with language, decision-making ability, judgmentRead MoreAlzheimers Dis ease Essay2414 Words   |  10 PagesAlzheimers Disease Alzheimer’s disease is the disease of the century. This disease is affecting many lives, families, and caregivers. This research presented is to help educate on the topic of Alzheimer’s disease, which many people aren’t aware enough about. Statistics are given to show how extreme this disease is, and how many people it’s affecting in society. Also statistics are presented that give the amount of money being spent relating to Alzheimer’s disease. This research explainsRead MoreAlzheimer’s Disease Essay2544 Words   |  11 PagesAlzheimer’s disease defined: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive, terminal, degenerative brain disease. It is the fourth leading cause of death in adults and currently affects over four million people in the United States. This number is expected to increase over the next several years as the baby boomers age, until it reaches fourteen million by the year 2025. Alzheimer disease generally occurs in people over seventy five years of age; however it does strike people in their forties, fiftiesRead MoreEssay on Alzheimers Disease2405 Words   |  10 PagesAlzheimers Disease is a condition that affects 50% of the population over the age of eighty five, which equals four million Americans each year. It is becoming an important and high-profile issue in todays society for everyone. There are rapid advancements being made in the fight against this disease now more than ever, and the purpose of this essay is to educate the public on the background as well as the new discoveries. There are many new drugs that are being tested and studied every day whichRead MoreEssay on Alzheimers Disease813 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿Topic: Alzheimer’s Disease Specific Purpose: To help my audience understand what Alzheimer’s Disease is. Thesis Statement: The need to educate people on Alzheimer’s Disease for family members or friends in-case a loved one is diagnosed. Introduction: A. What would one do if their family member or friend knew of someone who was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease? What would they do to help or take care of this family member? Well, I work in a nursing home with the elderly with this diseaseRead MoreEssay on Alzheimers Disease 512 Words   |  3 Pagesmajor medical advancements like the world has never seen before, some diseases still continue to plague the human race and confuse even some of the brightest scientists today. Unfortunately, Alzheimer Disease (AD) is one of them and it affects between 2.4 and 4.5 million people in America. Alzheimer’s is usually diagnosed in people over the age of 65, but in rarer cases people as young as 16 have it. Since it is a degenerative disease, patients develop it with few symptoms at an earlier stage, but thenRead More Alzheimer’s Disease Essay1176 Words   |  5 PagesAlzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease is a disease of the future. With the growing aged population, this disease, which affects primarily the elderly, will become of increasing relevance to the medical profession. Also, the high frequency of Alzheimer’s, and the high cost in labor, money, and material of caring for its victims shall put considerable burden on the society as a whole. Here, however, these issues are not going to be debated. Instead the pathology of Alzheimer’s will be reviewedRead More Alzheimers Disease Essay1235 Words   |  5 PagesAlzheimer’s Disease is an irreversible, genetically linked illness. This disease was chosen for the topic of this essay under the consideration that in many families the illness can be incredibly tragic, passing down for generations without mercy. It is not rare to encounter families in which each member is afflicted with a form, mild or severe, of Alzheimer’s. The disease is a progressive brain disease which comes in t wo separate types: Early-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease and Late-Onset Alzheimer’s

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Online Therapy - 1280 Words

Online Therapy Daryl Hartlauer BSHS-375 06/18/2015 David B. Lagerson Online Therapy The purpose of this paper is to investigate and to report how on-line therapy is currently being implemented in treatment today. I will be looking at three different current services and how they are regulated, how they are implemented, security issues, ethical issues, and treatment facilitation. In my opinion on-line therapy offers some unique advantages both for the client and the therapist. There are however some considerations in regards to distance, such as therapy being provided across state or national boundaries, being able to maintain a secure environment as well as a loss of some valuable to cues in reading and evaluating†¦show more content†¦Each listed therapist or counselor is licensed in their field for their particular state. This company founded in April of 2000 is claimed to be the largest global network of therapists available for online services. (Online Therapy, 2015) Conclusion There are a myriad of choices available to choose from. Many are offering very similar services, so it is a good practice to check their credentials, read their bios along with their ratings. Make sure that theyre using HIPPA approved software and have secure network connections. Another consideration, is the counselor certified or licensed in your state? Checked the pricing and read all the fine print to ensure you are getting what you are paying for. With the variety and types of services available online, be clear in what you’re trying to accomplish and what your needs are in order to make an informed decision. Some of the services use skype (business) or private e-mail lists. E-mail counseling evolved out of more traditional paper letter based counseling. This type of counseling has been used all the way back to Freud and his patients. One of the major drawbacks compared to face to face is that some of the inflection, tone of voice, posture and body language c an not necessarily be transmitted online. This can make it difficult to accurately assess the client or even lead to misdiagnosis. For someone who suffers withShow MoreRelatedOnline Therapy1057 Words   |  5 Pagesinformation. Therapy may be considered a clients maximum force in obtaining control of their problems they face during their lives. In current years therapy has evolved into a higher-level of treatment and can be taken online. Online therapy is cost effective, convenient, and helps with time management. On the web currently there are uncountable amounts of online therapy organizations available for individuals to benefit from, if needed. To obtain knowledge of the details of online therapy I haveRead MoreOnline Therapy1437 Words   |  6 PagesOnline Therapy BSHS/352 February 3,2014 Online Therapy Therapy can be seen as a way for a client to work through an issue in their life. A client may find that they dont feel comfortable sitting in an office with a therapist discussing their issues or concerns but that they would rather obtain therapy by accessing the Internet and utilizing online therapy. With modern technology it makes it much easier to access different forms of online therapyRead MoreOnline Therapy Paper1529 Words   |  7 PagesOnline Therapy Heather Lattea BSHS/352 Instructor Andrade August 13, 2012 Online Therapy Online therapy has emerged as a viable new option in the helping profession. Online therapy or e-therapy occurs when a therapist provides therapy and support over the Internet. E-mail, chat, video, or smart phone are all waysRead MoreOnline Therapy Paper1146 Words   |  5 PagesMARY H. GOODMAN JUNE 20TH, 2013 ONLINE THERAPY PAPER BSHA/352 TECHNOLOGY IN HUMAN SERVICES JASON ANDRADE ONLINE THERAPY PAPER INTRODUCATION This paper will discuss conduct and discuss three different online therapy sites. It will discuss the contact of each website, the professional involved, how the actual online interaction occurs. It will address how professional associations and state boards view online therapy. It will discuss the related security and ethical issues, such as informedRead MoreOnline Therapy Sites1574 Words   |  7 PagesOnline Therapy Sites Online therapy is professional counseling services that are offered over the internet. Online therapy allows clients and professionals to communicate over the internet without having to communicate in the traditional office visits. In addition, online therapy allows clients and patients to attend online counseling in which the clients will feel more comfortable and less intimidated. On the other hand, clients are more likely to be open and honest when communicating throughRead MoreOnline Therapy Paper1368 Words   |  6 PagesOnline Therapy Paper Keisha Lucas BSHS/352 April 8, 2013 Professor Kari Siemieniewski Online Therapy Paper Online Therapy is a service that helps people to obtain therapeutic services through an online database that is ran by a therapist or a group of therapists, who are in charge of the website. Therapeutic websites are very helpful for someone who isn’t able to get to an office setting to have face-to-face sessions. They are extremely convenient because one can have counseling sessionsRead MoreOnline Therapy Paper1114 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ Online Therapy Paper Shanika Elebeck BSHS 375 June 23, 2015 Ms. Reyes Online Therapy Paper Technology has made an enormous advancement with the helping field through technical applications. Applications like Skype can allow a person to communicate through video. A person can use Skype for personal and professional purposes. Applications that allow a person to video chat have been used to perform online doctor visits and online psychotherapy services. Like everything in this world nothingRead MoreThe Use of E-Therapy to Improve Quality of Care and Increase Number of Patients1025 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ The Use of E-Therapy to Improve Quality of Care and Increase Number of Patients HCS/531 January 13, 2014 The Use of E-Therapy to Improve Quality of Care and Increase Number of Patients As a member of ABC consultants, New York Presbyterian has hired me to pinpoint ways to improve and expand their patient care. New York Presbyterian Hospital based in New York, whose â€Å"healthcare system serves residents of Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx, as well as Westchester, Long IslandRead MoreAdvantages And Disadvantages Of Therapeutic Alliance1276 Words   |  6 Pagesare a multitude of reasons why an individual may need or want therapy; whether it’s due to learning how to cope with a mental disorder or disability, life happenings such as traumas or abuse, addictions, or even PTSD. Anybody can receive it – individual persons, families, or groups. It isn’t hard to argue that most therapists and psychologists will agree that the therapeutic alliance is one of the most beneficial foundations of a therapy session. Also referred to as the working alliance or workingRead MorePersonal Statement On Online Counseling Essay1376 Words   |  6 Pages with difficult issues. Therapists who work online will conduct consistent conferences while keeping the record of patients improvement like a physician who operates out of an office. Online therapists use different strategies than a traditional mental health professional. Because these meetings do not take place in the regular setting, the doctor uses a variety of methods to make contact with the client. The session can be conducted through the use of online video chats, by email and phone calls. But

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Influence of Technology in Human Resource Management - Sample

Question: Discuss about the Influence of Technology in Human Resource Management. Answer: Being a student in business management, it has always been something of concern about the management of the human resource team. However, with the advancement of technology, this has been simplified. In this, my research topic is how technology, by all means, has altered the management of the human resource team. The management of human resource takes various forms, from application to selection, to recruiting, to determining the productivity etc. Therefore, the utilization of technology on different fronts of human resource management by different companies is something that has been of concern to researchers and surveyors. Some of the statistics and data on this topic are readily available at https://blog.capterra.com/the-top-11-hr-technology-statistics-for-2016/. However, this data is for only one year, 2016. This project basically focuses on the improvement in technology and the management of human resource teams. The topic is broad with various questions but I will focus on the three most vital when it comes to the human resource team. The three questions are: what gives companies an edge when it comes to the class of a human resource team, does technology improve the costs of managing a human resource team and how does technology simplify the application process. In my research, I will use the phrases human resource and technology and human resource management. The data obtained will not be limited by the year of the journal or article with the main purpose to obtain a common ground for my topic. Basically. The development in technology and the increase in ease of managing a human resource team has ensured that the productivity of business entities is higher (Boxall Purcell, 2011; Wright Mcmahan, 2017). Furthermore, the technology used determines the level or class of the team (Dyer reeves, 2006) References Boxall, P. Purcell, J., 2011. Strategy and human resource management. s.l.:s.n. Dyer, L. Reeves, T., 2006. Human resource strategies and firm performance: what do we know and where do we need to go? The international journal of human resource management. Wright, P. M. McMahan, G. C., 2017. Theoretical

Friday, April 10, 2020

Abortion Essays (925 words) - Abortion Debate, Fertility, Abortion

Abortion Abortion is one of the most controversial issues discussed in today's society. This issue has caused a great deal of turmoil in the world. Some protestors have even killed other human beings over the issue. People's religion has had some input on this issue, but this should not be the only factor when looking at this serious controversial debate. There are many questions that one must ask him or herself when deciding to be either for or against abortion. In this position paper I am going to talk about some issues that may not be black and white. My position on this issue is against abortion, and I am going to attempt to show that. Abortion is wrong in many instances. It is wrong anytime except in the case of a dying mother, incest or rape. It is wrong because people choose to have sex. They know the consequences before they had sex. For example, a person is playing Russian Roulette. This person knows that there is a possibility that they may die from this. In the case of pregnancy, the people that choose to have sex, they know that there is a chance at getting pregnant. The people that have an abortion when they have become pregnant by there own choice, not by incest, rape or threatening the mother's life, are using it as a birth control method, which is wrong. One of the major issues is determining whether or not the fetus is a person, and if so, when? My view is that it becomes a person at the time of conception. At that specific time, it has 46 chromosomes and is determined whether or not is it going to be a boy or girl. Furthermore, all other characteristics are decided at that moment. One of the issues discussed in class was the time of conception. A point mentioned in class was that any time a sperm or egg was destroyed or killed, then abortion was occurring, for example, masturbation or menstruation. The point that is trying to be made is that if killing the fetus at conception is wrong, which has potential to be a person, then killing the things that have potential to become a person, like sperm and eggs, is wrong also. I do not agree with this point. My reasoning is the sperm or egg does not have all 46 chromosomes, it has only half. Half of the chromosomes does not make a person. Alone, the sperm or egg cannot become a person, but at the time of conception it is possible. I cannot sufficiently rebut the idea of the potentiality of the sperm or egg. I do understand that these both have the potential to become a person. A point related to the previous one is the use of contraceptives. The use of contraceptives brings up the issue of why aren't these as wrong as an abortion. This raises again the idea of the potentiality of a person. As I previously mentioned, I do not see something with half of the chromosomes needed to become a human, a human. John Noonan says that the fetus is a person, therefore it is wrong to kill it. The problem with this is that all people do not believe a fetus is a person, therefore it is okay to kill it. For example, Mary Anne Warren does not believe the fetus is a person. She thinks that there are certain traits or characteristics that an organism must have in order to be characterized as a person. These are: (1) "consciousness (of objects and events external and /or internal to the being), and in particular the capacity to feel pain; (2) reasoning (the developed capacity to solve new and relatively complex problems); (3) self motivated activity (activity which is relatively independent of either genetic of direct external control); (4) the capacity to communicate, by whatever means, messages of an indefinite variety of types, that is, not just with an indefinite number of possible contents, but on indefinitely many possible topics; (5) the presence of self-concepts, and self awareness, either individual or racial, or both." The problem with these traits as determining the time at which a fetus becomes a person is that these traits describe things that are not just human, but also children that are two and three years of age. For instance, these characteristics say that a new born baby that is alive and breathing on its own, is not a person and therefore it is okay to kill

Monday, March 9, 2020

The ras gene Essay Example

The ras gene Essay Example The ras gene Essay The ras gene Essay Introduction The ras cistron was originally discovered as a viral transforming gene. Subsequent surveies have found that an altered version of the ras cistron is found in approximately 30 per centum of all human tumors. 1 Ras proteins encoded by reticular activating systems cistrons are little GTPase that serve as signal transducers by exchanging from an active GTP-bound signifier to an inactive GDP-bound signifier. These plasma-membrane-localized molecular switches regulate multiple signal transduction tracts. Activation of Ras signalling causes cell growing, distinction and endurance. Ras effecters refer to the alternate downstream signaling spouses that interact with the active signifier of Ras. There are at least three major effecter tracts, which are Raf kinase, PI3K and Ral-GEF tracts. Mutants in the Ras effecter adhering loop abrogate the ability of Ras effecters to adhere to Ras without interrupting the intrinsic ability of Ras to hydrolyse GTP and lead to the unmanageable downstream signaling Cascadess which may do malignant neoplastic disease. 2 Ras proteins Ras protein is held at the interior surface of the plasma membrane by a lipid group that is embedded in the interior cusp of the bilayer. It is a cardinal constituent of signaling tracts that leads all the manner from the outer surface of the plasma membrane to the Deoxyribonucleic acid of the karyon. The transition of Ras from an inactive GDP-bound signifier to an active GTP-bound protein is a cardinal measure in conveying the activation of membrane-bound receptor tyrosine kinases to the induction of cistron written text in the karyon. Figure 1: The Ras signaling rhythm ( From Robert A. Weinberg. The biological science of malignant neoplastic disease 150-153, 2007 ) Figure 1 shows the Ras signaling rhythm. The upstream signals stimulate the inactive Ras-GDP signifier to the active Ras-GTP signifier. There are three distinguishable types of cell-surface receptors involved in the upstream signaling of Ras: G protein-coupled receptors, receptor tyrosine kinase, and integrins. All of them can take to the formation of phosphotyrosine moorage sites for the SH2 sphere of the adapter protein Grb2. Another sphere of Grb2 molecule binds to a protein called Sos. As a Ras-GEF, one time recruited to the interior surface of the membrane by adhering with Grb2, the Sos protein binds to Ras and trip it. 3 In most cases, binding of the GTP-bound protein activates the downstream mark, leting it to transport out a peculiar map. As a rhythm, the GTP-bound protein is so hydrolysed by GAP and returns to the inactive signifier. Mutants in the reticular activating systems cistron that lead to tumour formation prevent the protein from hydrolyzing the edge GTP back to the GDP signifier, even in the presence of the GAP. However, about all RAS activation in tumor is accounted for by mutants in codons 12, 13 and 61, which merely affect the GTPase catalytic activity of the Ras protein and stay other maps. Therefore, the Ras protein is left in the active signifier and additions an increased power to drive cell proliferation. 4 Ras effecters Ras effecters are proteins that have a strong affinity to the active signifier GTP-Ras, whose binding is impaired by mutants within the nucleus effecter sphere. The binding of Ras effecter proteins to GTP-Ras triggers distinct signaling Cascadess. However, some recent researches find that non as believed that GDP-Ras does non hold any functional function ; GDP-Ras so interacts with several effecter proteins and modulates downstream signaling events. 5, 6 In 1993, Raf kinase was foremost discovered as a Ras effecter followed by Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factors ( Ral-GEFs ) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase ( PI3K ) . Apart from the three effecters, the turning household of RAS effecter proteins includes RIN1, AF6, NORE1, TIAM, GAP, MEKK, PKC- ? and PLC-e. Currently there are more than 10 different RAS effecters ( see Figure 2 ) , and several of them contain functionally related isoforms. 7 Figure 2: Ras effecter tracts ( From Robert A. Weinberg. The biological science of malignant neoplastic disease 202-204, 2007 ) Royal air force The serine/threonine kinase Raf has been shown to be a critical signal transducer used normally by a figure of receptor protein tyrosine kinases ( RPTKs ) and to be indispensable for growing and development in craniates and invertebrates. 8, 9 Raf maps in the mitogen-activated protein kinase ( MAPK ) tract as portion of a protein kinase cascade. Raf kinase is stimulated by a assortment of receptors in tracts both independent of and dependent on Ras. Ras-Raf interactions have been extensively characterized and shown to be mediated by the effecter adhering cringle of Ras and the N-terminal regulative part of Raf. 10-13 Once Ras has bound GTP, activated Ras attracts and binds Raf via its effecter cringle. After this association, Raf is relocated via Ras from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. Activated Raf phosphorylates MEK ( MAPK kinase or Erk kinase ) which in bend activates MAP kinases such as Erk which phosphorylates several written text effecter molecules involved in the finding of the cellular response, such as Ets, Elk-1 and SAP-1 ) . 14, 15 There are four major groups of MAP kinases in worlds: the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ( Erk1 and Erk2 ) ; the c-Jun N-terminal kinases/stress-activated protein kinases ( Jnk1, Junk2 and Junk3 ) ; the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases ( p38MAPKa, p38MAPK A ; szlig ; , p38MAPK? and p38MAPKd ) ; and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases-5 ( Erk5 or Big MAP kinase-1 ) . 16 The Erks are by and large thought to be more of import in human malignant neoplastic disease than the other MAP kinase households, and functional end product of Erk is publicity of tumor growing, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. At low degrees Erk activity is deficient to excite proliferation, whereas high degrees of Erk activity favor cell rhythm suppression, frequently as a preliminary to distinction or aging. This is clearly of import in malignant neoplastic disease, where the cells need to accomplish the right degree of Erk activity in order to favor proliferation over other results to guarantee tumour patterned advance. Unfortunately, it is hard to prescriptive about the precise degrees of Erk activity as a predictive marker in malignant neoplastic disease surveies. It besides means that the lone manner to guarantee that this tract is being inhibited in tests of new targeted therapies will be to execute comparings of tract activity in pre- and on-treatment biopsies. 17 By using constitutively active and dominant negative mutations of the Ras and Raf proteins it has been shown that the Ras/Raf signal- transduction cascade plays a important function in the ordinance of cell proliferation by growing factors. The activation of the cascade by itself is sufficient to drive immortalized fibroblasts cell lines through a complete cell rhythm. Experiments demoing that cells showing oncogenic constituent active mutations of the Ras or Raf proteins show elevated degrees of cyclin D1 protein, which forms a complex with and maps as a regulative fractional monetary unit of CDK4 or CDK6, whose activity is required for cell rhythm G1/S passage. Overexpression of cyclin D1, which alters cell rhythm patterned advance, is observed often in a assortment of tumours and may lend to tumorigenesis. In add-on, the p27kip1 protein, which interacts with cyclin/cdk composites and thereby inhibits the catalytic activity of the composite, is repressed by Ras/Raf signalling. A po ssible account of how the Ras/Raf proteins intercede the downregulation of p27kip1 look arose from the observation that the Ras/Raf induced Erk kinase is able to phosphorylate the p27kip1 protein in vitro and that the phosphorylated p27kip1 protein can non adhere to and suppress the kinase activity of cdk2 immune composites, which so facilitates the phosphorylation of the cdk inhibitor and thereby marks the protein for ubiquitination and debasement. 20 Three isoforms of Raf in mammal have been identified ( Raf-1, B-Raf and A-Raf ) . All Raf proteins are expressed ubiquitously in developing and grownup mice, although B-Raf look is highest in neural tissues and A-Raf look is highest in urogenital tissue. 18 Mutations in Raf-1 are rare, but this isoform can be activated in certain contexts and may lend to oncogenesis by advancing cell endurance and modulating Erk signaling within a threshold allowable to proliferation. The presence of Ras and B-Raf mutants in malignant neoplastic disease high spots the importance of this tract as a curative mark. Studies show that malignant neoplastic disease cells that harbour mutants in B-Raf are well more sensitive to pathway suppression than are cells in which Ras is mutated. Unfortunately, at present it is still ill-defined whether it is better to aim B-Raf or MEK in B-Raf mutated cells. 19 The Ras-Raf-MAPK tract is arguably the most-extensively characterized and exhaustively studied signal transduction tract in metazoans, surely over the last decennary. This examination reflects the cardinal function of this tract in development, cellular distinction, and, particularly, mitogenesis. Continuous overactivity of this tract is necessary to the growing of a significant fraction of tumor development. The tract constituents therefore are attractive marks for antiproliferative therapies. The apprehension of the interaction between these elements and their operation during the procedure of Raf activation has expanded greatly but remains uncomplete. Decision

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Uses Cases Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Uses Cases - Assignment Example The withdrawal transaction begins by a customer inserting his or her Bank Card into the card slot of the ATM. Then a user validation process is performed on the basis of the card ID and the customer’s PIN. After validation, the a display screen is provided containing the available set of operations. In this scenario, the customer has directly selects â€Å"Withdraw Cash†. The ATM screen displays prompts for an account type. The selects the desired account type from the available Menu. This is immediately followed by screen for the user to input the required amount of money. All this information falls under the withdrawal use case. That is, the Bankcard ID, PIN (Personal Identification Number), account type and amount, which is then sent to the Bank as a requested transaction. The Bank then replies with a go-ahead or not reply. Upon successful approval the customer’s money is made available by the dispenser. The ATM then ejects the card and Prints a receipt. It is essential to indicate that this use case is based on the assumption that a user makes a direct and successful withdrawal. However, there are some alternative flows caused by conditions such as Wrong PIN, Invalid or Expired Card, Invalid Account type and Excess withdrawal Amount. The second diagram is a use case dependency for making an account deposit. As indicated in the use case diagram below, this is another highly technical procedure in the design of an ATM service machine. The preconditions are same as for withdrawal, which is a customer and Bank. The following is involved in the execution of an account deposit transaction. The transaction initiates by a Bank Customer inserting his or her card. This is then followed a provision of display screen by the ATM prompting a user PIN, which is integrated as the validation use case. It uses the card ID and PIN to authenticate its use. The machine displays a screen